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Car Accident Lawyers
Car Accident Lawyers represent those who have suffered personal injuries due to negligence of someone. If you are injured and seeking justice then you should always speak with a car accident law firm.
I begin this essay staging and inform the reader of what has been a trauma for the fictional "Michael". Michael has been involved in a car accident and there are a number of possible psychological reactions that may occur in response to this trauma. Consult with a car accident lawyer if you are injured in any type of car accident. I inform the reader that I will explain all these possible reactions.
Then define what a trauma is to help the reader to clarify this. After passing through all the emotional reactions, physical and cognitive changes that may occur by Michael in the period immediately after the car accident.
Explain the cognitive and emotional reactions that may occur with him after his return home from the hospital and begins to start rebuilding their lives. Avoidance could be an indication that there may be some psychological damage that needs repair.
Then I will discuss possible long-term psychological disorders that Michael can develop after the accident. PTSD and dissociative disorders ASD is explained in great detail. Then examines why some people develop some of these disorders, while others recover completely. I explain and examine the four factors of vulnerability cognitive theorists say that may predispose a person to developing these disorders after trauma.
After examining these vulnerabilities discuss the long-term prognosis of Michael and future implications for mental health. Various treatments and therapies that are discussed can help Michael recover from the trauma of the car accident. I also discuss how I could take care of your own mental health in the future, and try to prevent it from developing mental health problems if it suffers a trauma in your life again.
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Michael was driving home from the city with his best friend Pat, in the passenger seat. Both are attending their first year of college and are home for the weekend. Michael is considered to be a good driver, but he likes to drive fast. Tonight Michael is driving very fast which is full of courage against his friend. Michael takes over the car in front of him, not realizing that there is a car to come out of a side road from the opposite direction. Michael runs into the oncoming car. Michael receives very small lesions, but the driver of the other vehicle was seriously injured and the best friend of Michael Pat was killed on impact.
A trauma is defined as a "clash of powerful negative psychological effects" (Colman, 2009: 780). Traumatic events such as this accident, are outside the normal range of common human experiences that people have in their everyday lives (Black, 2006). PTSD is a response to events that are not waiting. A serious accident is sudden, unexpected and threatening and what is classified as a traumatic stressor for Michael. Michael has experienced the trauma of a car accident and is now react in several different ways.
The stress response is emotional, cognitive and physical and usually correspond to the severity of stress is. Malta (1994) Valent (1998) found that all symptoms and psychiatric diagnosis could occur in the first few days after a car accident. Juan's emotional makeup, relationship history, age, availability of support, previous coping mechanisms and their sense of self will determine how he deals with this trauma.
Juan immediate reaction may be to go into "survival mode". As the body prepares for 'fight or flight' Michael can feel the desire to escape the crisis. Biologically Michael's heart beating faster, your blood pressure has increased and he can experience a greater awareness of the situation, but a reduction in awareness of everything else. Alternatively you may feel tired or feel like he may vomit or faint. Michael could freeze or dissociate and are separated from the situation. They may also have numbness, and to reduce pain or feelings of terror associated with the car accident and the possible outcomes of the same (Resick, 2010).
When Michael is taken to the hospital and away from the accident, which has been removed from the stressful or traumatic. Immediate reactions but poor Michael diminish coping skills may mean that future stress situations is governed by faulty thinking patterns. For now, if Michael became dissociated or sleepy during the traumatic event still emotionally closed. However, it is more likely at this stage that Michael will be flooded with images and emotions associated with the car accident. If initial responses Juan voltage does not resolve the trauma, prolonged reactions may progress to disease and possibly a psychological disorder (Valent, 1998).
Michael begins to think about what happened. At first (as a defense mechanism) can be thought that the accident was not your fault and it was the other driver who caused the accident. You might think that is a good and careful driver that was just unlucky. He may be thinking about how your family, friends and the community will react to what has happened. Now you can start to think that is a bad person and that no one will ever forgive him for killing Pat. Michael can think of another person who was injured and worry that they will die too. He may have poor concentration and difficulty making decisions. He may think if you lose your license or go to jail for what he did. Michael sense of being in control may be threatened. The way you think about yourself and the world around him has changed. Michael may think never get into the driver's seat of a car again (Rosenbloom & Williams, 1999).
Initially Michael may feel euphoric and lucky to be alive. He may feel that he is invincible, and he survived. Gradually, as the reality sinks, he may begin to feel the loss of his friend is dead. You can start to mourn for his dead friend, but then you will realize that he is responsible for that death. You may also be experiencing feelings of survivor guilt to stay alive and shame and guilt to the person who was injured and the friend who died. You can lose the ability to enjoy the things in life that used to enjoy doing. Michael may begin to feel anxious about what everyone thinks of it and without hope, because there is no way to turn back time and ignore what he did. He can chew on "what if". Michael may experience a loss of self-esteem (Rosenbloom & Williams, 1999).
Michael can start acting recklessly. You can avoid the mental images of the car crash and block the emotions associated with it. You may have trouble getting to sleep or staying asleep, or you may find that you are sleeping more than normal. He may be having nightmares about the event or who may be having trouble remembering parts of the car accident. His appetite for food and / or gender may also change. Michael may experience setbacks in reproducing the accident and its consequences on the head. He may experience hyper arousal and awareness and can be hyper vigilant to everything going on around them. He may feel tense and on edge all the time. Alternatively, you can begin to withdraw from the world, his family and friends and get depressed. Michael may be starting to feel fear and anxiety all the time, even though it is no longer in danger. You can also display sudden bursts of anger and aggression (Resick, 2010).
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Michael may refuse to talk about the car accident and avoid being around cars. These are the tactics of evasion because Michael does not want to experience the pain of the traumatic event. Michael experienced the unconditioned stimulus car accident and gave the conditioned response of fear. When he begins to avoid anything to do with cars, this becomes a conditioned stimulus that gives a conditioned response and is positively reinforced because avoidance behavior makes Michael feel better. However, to avoid the problem remains and keep only reinforced (Bernstein et al, 1994).
There are many theories that explain why Michael is thinking, feeling and acting differently after the car accident. Psychodynamic theorists say it is because the trauma is a threat to the ego and therefore the emotions associated with the traumatic event are suppressed. These emotions arise from Juan in the form of anxiety or depression. Theoretical learning say that through classical and operant conditioning, Michael keeps the fear of car accident shortly after the danger has passed. This prevents you from learning to get on a new car (or the memory of the car accident) is not more dangerous for him (Resick, 2010).
Cognitive theorists would say that Michael is thinking, feeling and acting differently, because it can not be possible for Michael to incorporate the traumatic event in their current beliefs and expectations. Michael is the conflict between the desire to meet and overcome the traumatic situation, with simultaneous want to avoid the pain of it. This may result in anesthetic and to prevent Michael. Juan positive perception of self is broken as a result of the car accident, causing anxiety and cognitive decay (Resick, 2010).
Michael went through physical reactions, emotional, mental and behavioral after the car accident. If any of these initial reactions become symptoms that last a long time and is not showing signs of recovery, then Michael may have developed a clinical disorder. The morning is mourning the loss of a loved one and is a natural process. Michael will mourn his friend Pat, but this is likely to be accompanied by a strong feeling of guilt. This can cause severe Juan of depression or suicidal thoughts. Michael also may feel worthless, because he killed 'his friend. If these symptoms persist for more than three months after Michael may be diagnosed with major depression.
Endangering the life events that cause a person to feel helpless and hopeless and cause death or serious injury or threat may result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is possible that Michael may develop PTSD after car accident, as a person who really killed and another injured. Symptoms of PTSD are flashbacks and nightmares, avoidance symptoms, detachment from others, numb emotions, hypervigilance, poor concentration and irritability, among others. If Michael has experienced some or all of these symptoms for at least a month after the car crash continuous and if these symptoms sufficiently affect the daily operation of Juan in the world, can be diagnosed with PTSD (Resick , 2010).
If Michael dissociated during or immediately after the car accident he too may develop acute stress disorder (ASD). If Peter has experienced three of the following five criteria at the time of the collision car-numbing, feeling of being in a dream, derealization, depersonalization of dissociative amnesia, then you may be at risk. If Michael returns to the car accident experience through nightmares and flashbacks, avoiding reminders of the car accident and changes in sleep patterns or is irritable and unable to concentrate, then these are also warning signs of ASD. If a combination of all these factors are present and consequently impair the operation of Juan, an ASD diagnosis can be made. However, the symptoms must last a minimum of two days and a maximum of four weeks and must occur within four weeks of the car accident (Resick, 2010).
If Michael has difficulty remembering all or part of the car accident, may develop a dissociative disorder. Dissociation involves an interruption in the normal flow of information processing in the brain. Michael can be diagnosed with dissociative amnesia is reversible. It is unlikely that Michael will develop dissociative fugue (sudden flight away from home), depersonalization (constant feeling of being in a dream), or dissociative identity disorder (development of two or more identities) as these disorders are extremely rare and usually involve child abuse (Kring et al, 2010).
Lundin (1995) in Valent (1998) found that PTSD occurs in only 1% -15% of cases of people involved in a car accident. There are many theories and factors to consider regarding whether Michael will develop a clinical condition after car accident. Some theorists believe that a person's cultural perception of self may influence susceptibility to PTSD after a traumatic event. Michael lives in Ireland, which is a Western society, individualistic. In this type of society, emphasizing the importance of unity or autonomy, individuality and self.
When someone from an individualistic society (as Michael) goes through a traumatic event, fear become less autonomous, experienced a decline of individuality and become more dependent on their social group. This fear causes a threat to oneself conceptual causing a confused notion of the identity of the person (Jobson, 2009). The true self is covered with a "false self" as the person is unable to maintain a sense of integrity, consistency and continuity. This can manifest in symptoms of PTSD (Gomez, 1997).
Other theorists have identified four vulnerabilities that may predispose a person to go on to develop PTSD after a traumatic event. If Michael is susceptible to any of these vulnerabilities, which can be between 15% go on to develop PTSD after a car accident. The first is the negative attributional style. People with NAS have a tendency to take responsibility for negative events. Michael probably feels completely responsible for the car accident and the death of his friend. This can make you feel hopeless and helpless. If Michael has a NAS, whish hopelessness may develop depression is associated with symptoms of PTSD, as neurotic tendencies and exaggerated startle response.
Car Accident Injuries
The second vulnerability for PTSD is cognitive rumination. This refers to the process of constant dwelling on the consequences and causes of traumatic event rather than the event itself. This may allow the person to stop thinking about the event itself that is also associated with PTSD. If Michael is in constant reflection on the causes of the accident, then you can chew and avoid thinking about the actual car accident.
The third vulnerability is cognitive anxiety sensitivity. When individuals with high anxiety sensitivity timely notice to be anxious, become focused on symptoms of anxiety and fear experience, which further increases the symptoms of anxiety. If Michael is the type of person who gets anxious and fearful when thinking about the car accident and focuses on their feelings of fear, then it is more likely to avoid thinking about the car accident at all costs that may eventually cause a diagnosis of PTSD.
Cognitive vulnerability looms ahead cognitive style. People with LCS have the ability to create mental representations of danger past, present and future. They overestimate the magnitude of potentially dangerous situations or perceive danger where there is no danger. LCS emphatically makes people avoid situations or emotions associated with traumatic events. This avoidance is associated with PTSD. If Michael goes out of his way to avoid thinking about cars, being around cars, driving cars, or even watch shows about cars, then he may have an LCS that can predispose to this disorder. Michael can feel that something terrible will happen if you are associated with a new car (Elwood et al, 2009).
For Michael to successfully recover from the traumatic event, it is important that you feel your family and friends will support you through it. This is probably the case, but Michael did not see it that way-is often our perception of the aid, which determines how we recover, no real help there. A study examining the prevalence of ASD and PTSD after a traffic accident found that criticism of perceived social support and negative perceptions significantly predicted subsequent PTSD. If Michael feels guilty and depressed about the death of his friend, it can be concluded that their community will be ashamed of him (even if this is not the case). Your perception may be that no one will be there to help and this may prolong your recovery and make it more depressed (Holeva et al, 2001).
It is possible that Michael could recover without treatment. Support from family and friends, and being able to talk about what happened may be sufficient. However, if you have developed a clinical disorder then Michael will need specific psychiatric treatment. It can take medication to relieve their depression. Crisis intervention can help Michael to develop new skills to cope with the traumatic event. Psychodynamic therapy self explore how Michael and schemes have changed since the trauma and work through the conflicts that have arisen to Michael after the car accident. This can be useful if Michael perceived lack of support from family and the community at large.
Cognitive behavioral therapy involves classical conditioning and operant avoidance. This can be especially beneficial to Michael if he has been avoiding anything to do with driving as a result of the car accident. It can also be useful if you feel anxious (Corey, 2001). Anger Management Michael work through feelings of anger towards himself and the world about what happened. Grief counseling will help Michael to accept the death of his friend. One study found that negative interpretations of grief reactions were associated with avoidance behavior and the severity of the pain and depression. This can be important for Michael as he may have a negative interpretation of his grief for his friend, perhaps feeling he has no right to mourn him at all (Boelen et al, 2003).
Resick (2010) recalls the case of Marilyn, who required treatment for PTSD after a car accident. When Marilyn started driving again she was very anxious and constantly looked in the rearview mirror, getting ready for a shock. She had flashbacks and nightmares about the accident. Treatment consisted of Marilyn imaginal exposure and behavior. They turned quiet roads covered with mirrors. As fears diminished, decided to moderate their behavior glancing in the mirror less often. If Michael decided to go to cognitive behavioral therapy, the therapist may also use exposure treatment on him in an attempt to regain the leadership.
Developing good coping skills and level of resistance will determine how Michael will react to traumatic periods can run again in the future. Michael has to be aware of the vulnerabilities that may predict cognitive psychiatric illness for him. They should try to develop a good understanding of himself and the way it handles things. Learning to control the intensity of their feelings and engage in problem solving to manage the behavior of these feelings will give the power of Michael and control over their cognitive approaches (Schwarz, 2002).
Juan should have regular checkups with your doctor for the time to come and when he returns to college should contact the school counselor. If Michael is still feeling depressed should avoid alcohol and non-prescription drugs only aggravate their problems. If Michael can learn to talk openly about your feelings with family and friends to help you cope in the future. Join a campaign to talk to other young people about the dangers of driving over the speed limit can help the healing process of Michael. These techniques may be useful now and in the future, to help Michael overcome traumatic life situations and emotional disorders.
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